Physicochemical, Sensory and Microbial Qualities of Ice Cream Stabilized with Hydrocolloids from Achi (Brachystegia eurycoma) and Ofor (Detarium microcarpum)

Main Article Content

K. O. Aremu
T. M. Okonkwo
C. M. Eze
C. H. Agwu
J. I. Agbaka
A. N. Ibrahim


Aims: To investigate the physicochemical, sensory and microbial qualities of ice cream stabilized with hydrocolloids from Achi (Brachystegia eurycoma) and Ofor (Detarium microcarpum.

Study Design: A 4×5 split-plot in completely randomized design.

Place and Duration of Study: Department of Food Science and Technology, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Nigeria, Nsukka, Enugu State Nigeria between August 2018 and July 2019.

Methodology: Raw seeds of Achi (Brachystegia eurycoma) and Ofor (Detarium microcarpum) were purchased from Ekeonunwa market, Owerri, Imo State, Nigeria and processed into flours. Hydrocolloids from flours of Achi and Ofor were defatted with n-hexane (50 g/250 ml at 26±2°C) dispersed in distilled water (10 g/250 ml), centrifuged (1250 rpm/30 mins and 1500 rpm/30 mins for achi and ofor respectively). The supernatants obtained were dissolved in isopropanol, decanted dried in a hot air oven (60°C, 10 h), pulverised using a blender and stored in air –tight containers. Twenty (20) litres of ice cream samples were produced. Four (4) litres of the mix was measured out as control (i.e. plain ice cream without any stabilizer). Sixteen (16) additional ice cream mixes were produced in the same way by the addition of CMC, achi hydrocolloids, ofor hydrocolloids and a mixture of hydrocolloids from both achi and ofor as stabilizers, each at 0.1%, 0.2%, 0.3%, 0.4% concentrations. The physicochemical, sensory and microbial properties of the ice cream samples formulated were carried out.

Results: The outcome of physicochemical analysis revealed that viscosity (31.65 ± 0.17 cP – 82.50 ± 0.00 cP), overrun (19.30 ± 0.00% - 98.73 ± 0.00%), total solids (24.36 ± 0.33% - 54.00 ± 1.55%) and melting resistance (36.50 ± 0.58% -  92.50 ± 0.58%) were significantly (P < 0.05) affected by the type of stabilizers as well as their concentrations. The total titratable acidity (0.02 ± 0.00% -  0.02 ± 0.00%) and pH (6.74 ± 0.00 - 7.05 ± 0.05) of the ice cream samples showed no appreciable significant (P > 0.05) difference. The overall acceptability (5.80 ± 1.99 - 7.65 ± 1.00), aftertaste (5.45 ± 2.28 – 7.20 ± 0.89), mouthfeel (5.85 ± 1.79 - 7.25 ± 1.37) and homogeneity             (5.20 ± 1.96 - 7.60 ± 1.39) were significantly (P< 0.05) influenced as deduced from the sensory result.

Conclusion: The incorporation of local stabilizers significantly improved the physicochemical, sensory and microbial qualities of ice cream produced. Hydrocolloid extracts of Detarium microcarpum (Ofor), plant-based natural stabilizer is a capable replacer of CMC in ice cream production because of its higher viscosity than other stabilizers and CMC, agreeable consistency, better consumer preference than other stabilizers, enhanced qualities – slow melting rate i.e. high melting resistance, commendable pseudo-plasticity, effectual overrun which will yield more profits for ice cream manufacturers, bring about a new variety of ice creams that are safe for consumption. Hydrocolloid extracts of Detarium microcarpum, at 0.3%, showed more desirable similar effects on the physicochemical, sensory and microbial qualities of ice cream samples formulated compared to CMC and could, therefore be recommended as a replacer of CMC in ice cream production.

Ice cream, hydrocolloids, stabilizers, Brachystegia eurycoma, Detarium microcarpum, physicochemical, sensory qualities.

Article Details

How to Cite
Aremu, K. O., Okonkwo, T. M., Eze, C. M., Agwu, C. H., Agbaka, J. I., & Ibrahim, A. N. (2020). Physicochemical, Sensory and Microbial Qualities of Ice Cream Stabilized with Hydrocolloids from Achi (Brachystegia eurycoma) and Ofor (Detarium microcarpum). Asian Food Science Journal, 16(1), 14-27.
Original Research Article


Vaclavik VA, Christian EW. Fat and oil products. In: Heldman DR. editor. Essentials of Food Science, 3rd ed. New York: Springer Science and Business Media. 2008;229.

Milani J, Maleki G. Food industrial processes: Methods and equipment. In: Valdez B. editor. Hydrocolloids in Food Industry. Ryieka: InTech; 2012.

Burey P, Bhandari BR, Howes T, Gidley MJ. Hydrocolloid gel particles: Formation, characterisation, and application. Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition. 2008;48(5):361-377.

Adewale KO, Mozie ES. Names of different soup thickeners in some tribes in Nigeria (Discussion); 2010.

(Personal Communication, 20th March, 2010).

Nwakaudu AA, Nwakaudu MS, Owuamanam CI, Alagbaoso SO, Njoku NE, Agunwah IM, Ofoedu C, Ojukwu M, Ofoegbu JC, Anikwenze RO. Extraction and evaluation of hydrocolloids from Achi (Brachystegia eurycoma) and its application on a water melon fruit juice. European Journal of Food Science and Technology. 2017;5(1):22-28.

Iwu MM. Handbook of African Medicinal Plants. USA: CRC Press Inc;1993.

Akpata IA, Miachi OE. Proximate composition and selected functional properties of Detarium microcarpum. Plant Foods for Human Nutrition. 2001;56:297-302.

Onweluzo JC, Obanu ZA, Okwandu MC. Potentials of hydrocolloids from Detarium microcarpum (DM) and Mucuna flagellipes (MF) Seeds as Raw Beef Burger Stabilizers. Plant Foods for Human Nutrition. 2004;59:137-141.

Berger KG. Food Emulsions. In: Friberg SE and Larsson K. editors. Ice cream. 3rd ed. New York: Marcel Dekker.1997;413-490.

Nwosu JN, Ogueke CC, Onwuamanam CI, Onuegbu N. The effects of storage condition on the proximate and rheological properties of soup thickener, Brachystegia eurycoma (Achi). Journal of Report and Opinion. 2012;3(5):356-366.

Adikwu MU, Enebeke TC. Evaluation of snail mucin dispersed in Brachystegia Hydrocolloids gel as a wound healing agent. Animal Research International. 2017;4(2):685-690.

AOAC. Official methods of analysis of the association of official analytical chemists. Association of Official Analytical Chemists. 18th ed. Gaithersburg, Maryland, USA; 2010.

Huse PA, Towler C, Harper WJ. Substitution of non-fat milk solids in ice cream with whey protein concentrate and hydrolyzed lactose. New Zealand Journal of Dairy Science and Technology. 1984; 19:255–61.

Hui YH, Marh AH, Slanshard JM. Handbook of frozen foods. New York: Marcel Dekker Inc; 2004.

Tyler FA. Laboratory manual of physics. 5th ed. London: Edward Arnold Publishing Ltd,. 2009;118-119.

Ihekoronye AI, Ngoddy PO. Integrated food science and technology for the tropics. 1st ed. London: Macmillan Publishers Limited; 1985.

Prescott LM, Harley JP, Klein OA. Microbial nutrition, types of media. In: Microbiology. 6th ed. New York: McGraw Hill Publishers; 2005.

Marshall RT, Goff HD, Hartel RW. Ice cream. 6th ed. Kluwer Academic Publisher; 2003.

Goff HD, Hartel RW. Handbook of frozen foods. In: Hui YA. editor. Ice cream and Frozen Desserts. New York: Marcel Dekker; 2004.

Sofjan RP, Hartel RW. Effects of overrun on structural and physical characteristics of ice cream. International Dairy Journal. 2004;14(3):255-262.

Moeenfard M, Tehrani MM. Effect of some stabilizers on the physicochemical and sensory properties of ice cream type frozen yogurt. American-Eurasian Journal of Agriculture and Environmental Science. 2008;4(5):584-589.

Muse MR, Hartel RW. Ice cream structural elements that affect melting rate and hardness. Journal of Dairy Sciences. 2004; 87:1-10.

Klose R, Glicksman M. Handbook of food additives. In: Gums. 2nd ed. ED Academic Press; 1975.

Sworn G. Handbook of hydrocolloids. In: Phillips GO, Williams PA. editors. Gellan gum. Cambridge: Woodhead Publishing Ltd; 2000.

Vietoris V, Zajac P, Zubrickà S, Capla J, Curlej J. Comparison of total bacterial count (TBC) in Buk tank raw cow’s milk and Vending machine milk. Carpathian Journal of Food Science and Technology. 2016;8(1):184-191.

Ojokoh AO. Microbiological examination of ice cream sold in Akure. Pakistan Journal of Nutrition. 2006;5(6):536-538.

FAO / WHO. Milk and milk product. Joint FAO / WHO Food Standards Programme. Codex Alimentarius Commission. 2002;42.

Hossain KMM, Kabir SML, Rahman MM, Rahman MB. Organoleptic and microbial quality of ice cream sold at retail stores in Mymensingh, Bangladesh. Journal of Microbiology Research. 2012;2(4):89-94.

Nabi AHM, Islam MN, Al Reza MS, Haque MA, Uddin M, Talukder SA, Abedin MZ, Zubair MA. Evaluation of microbiological quality and safety of locally processed ice cream in Dhaka City, Bangladesh. Annals. Food Science and Technology. 2016;17: 307-316.

Cavin AL, Hay AE, Marston A, Stoeckli-Evans H, Scopelliti R, Diallo D, Hostettmann K. Bioactive diterpenes from the fruits of Detarium microcarpum. Journal of Natural Products. 2006;69(5): 768–773.

Igwe OU, Echeme JO. Isolation, characterisation and antifungal activity of 5-hydroxy-3-methyl-2-phenyl-6,7-dihydrofuro-chromen-4-one from the seeds of Brachystegia eurycoma Harms. Inter-national Research Journal of Pharmaceu-tical and Applied Sciences. 2013;3(6):47-50.