Main Article Content
Antioxidants are agents which scavenge free radicals and prevent cellular damage cause by them. They reduce the damage due to free radicals by neutralizing them before they can attack the cells. The aim of this research was to evaluate the antioxidant, nutritional and antinutritional properties of two leafy vegetables, Cleome rutidosperma and Cassia tora consumed in Adamawa State, Nigeria. 2, 2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) models were used to determine antioxidant activities of extracts. Nutritional composition and antinutritional properties were determined using standard procedures. There was a significant (p=0.05) decrease in the concentration of DPPH radical due to the scavenging activity of ethanol leaf extract of Cleome rutidosperma compared to control/standard. In FRAP also, C. rutidosperma ethanolic extract exhibited higher ferric reducing power than C. tora. Proximate analysis revealed the nutrients for C. rutidosperma and C. tora as; crude protein (31.06±0.00% and 26.24±0.00%), fat (7.13±0.00% and 6.93±0.10%), ash (15.17±0.61% and 11.60±0.00%), crude fiber (11.06±0.01 and 13.19±0.10%), moisture (9.99±0.00% and 9.12±0.10%), NFE (25.60±0.10% and 32.94±0.10%) respectively. Antinutritionals in ethanolic extracts of C. rutidosperma and C. tora were; oxalates, saponins, tannins, cyanogenic glycosides, phytate and alkaloids. Both vegetables revealed good percentages of proteins which can be used to compliment other sources of protein. All antinutrients of extracts were within tolerable levels.
Rashed K. Medicinal plants with antioxidant potential. A review. Hygeia J. for Drugs and Med. 2014;6(1):106–110.
Gutteridge, JM, Halliwell B. Free radicals and antioxidants in the year 2000. A historical book to the future. Ann. Acad Sci. 2000;889:136-147.
Lee J, Koo N, Min DB. Reactive oxygen species, aging and antioxidative neutraceuticals. Comprehensive Reviews in Food Science and Food Safety. 2004;3; 21–33.
Paur I, Carlsen MH, Halvorsen BL, Blomhoff R. Antioxidants in herbs and spices. In, herbal medicine: Biomolecular and clinical aspects. 2nd Edition, Roca Raton CRC Press; 2011.
Chakraborty AK, Charde MS, Roy H, Bhanja S, Behera M. Comparative study of antioxidant activity between ethanolic and aqueous extract of Cleome rutidosperma. Int. J. Pharm. Sci. Res. 2010;1(11):112-116.
Bose A, Smith PJ, Lategan CA, Gupta JK, Sudam SI. Studies on the in vitro antiplasmodial activity of Cleome rutidosperma. Acta Poloniae Pharmaceutica – Drug Research. 2010;67 (3):315-318
Okoro IO, Umar IA, Atawodi SE, Anigo KM. Antidiabetic effect of Cleome rutidosperma and Senecio biafrae (OLIV & HIERN) extracts in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. Int. J. Pharm. Sci. Res. 2014;5(6): 2490-2507.
Ghosh P, Biswas M, Biswas S, Dutta A, Hazral, Nag SK, et al. Phytochemical screening, anti-oxidant and anti-microbial activity of leaves of Cleome rutidosperma DC. (Cleomaceae). J. Pharm. Sci. Res. 2019;11(5):1790-1795.
Sirappuselvi S. Chitra M. In vitro antioxidant activity of Cassia tora Lin. Int. Res. J. Biol. Sci. 2012;1(6):57-61.
NNMDA (Nigerian Natural Medicine Development Agency). Medicinal Plants of Nigeria, North Central zone. Federal Ministry of Science and Technology. 2006; 1:120.
Maity TK, Mandal SC, Mukherjee PK, Saha K, Das J, Pal M, et al. Studies on anti-inflammatory effect of Cassia tora leaf extract (Fam. Leguminosae). Phytotherapy Res. 1999;12(3):221-223.
Aleem M, Asif M, Ahmad QU, Bano B. Antidiabetic and antioxidant activity of Annona squamosa extract in streptozotosin induced diabetic rats. Singapore Med. J. 2006;47:670-675.
Kubmarawa D, Magomya AM, Yebpella GG, Adedayo SA. Nutrient content and amino acid composition of the leaves of Cassia tora and Celtis integrifolia. Int. Res. J. Biochem. Bioinfor. 2011;1(9):222-225.
Harborne, J.B. Phytochemical methods. Chapman and Hall, London, New York. 1984;120.
Mensor LL, Menezes FS, Leitao GG, Reis AS, dos Santos TC, Coube CS. Screening of Brazilian plant extracts for antioxidant activity by the use of DPPH free radical method. Phytotherapy Res. 2001;15:127-130.
Sutharsingh R, Kavimani S, Jayakar B, Uvarani M, Thangathirupathi A. Quantitative phytochemical estimation and antioxidant studies on aerial parts of Naravelia zeylanica DC. Int J. Pharm. Studies Res. 2011;2(2):52-56.
Lucas GM, Markaka, P. Phytic acid and other phosphorus compound of beans (Phaseolus vugaris). J. Agric. Ed Chem. 1975;23:13-15.
AOAC (Association of Official Analytical Chemistry). Official Method of Analysis of the AOAC (W. Horwitz Edition) 18th edition. Washington D.C; 2005.
Abeza RH, Blake JT, Fisher EJ. Oxalate determination: Analytical problems encountered with certain plant species. J. Assoc. Offic Agri. Chemists. 1968;51:963-965.
Liu H. Health benefits of fruits and vegetables are from additive and synergistic combinations of phytochemicals. The American J. Clin. Nutr. 2003;78(3):5175-5205.
Zhang YJ, Gan RY, Li S, Zhou Y, Li AN, Zu DP, et al. Antioxidant phytochemicals for the prevention and treatment of chronic diseases: Review. Molecules. 2015;20: 21138-21156.
Forni C, Facchiano F, Bartoli M, Pieretti S, Facchiano A, D’Arcangelo D, et al. Beneficial role of phytochemicals on oxidative stress and age-related diseases. BioMed Research International. 2019;2-16.
Shen Q, Zhang B, Xu R, Wang Y, Ding Z, and Li P. Antioxidant Activity in vitro of selenium-contained protein from the Se-enriched Bifodobacterium animalis 01. Anaerobe. 2010;16:380-386.
Arya V, Yadav JP. Antioxidant activity and total phenolics in leaves extracts of Cassia tora L. Pharmacologyonline. 2010;2:1030-1036.
Meite S, Agbo AE, Koffi AH, Djaman AJ, N’Guessan JD. Study of antioxidant activity of leaves of Corchorus oliterius and Solanum macrocarpon. European J. Pharma. Med. Res. 2018;5(1):60-66.
Sarla S, Prakash MA, Apeksha R, Subhash C. Free Radical Scavenging (DPPH) and Ferric Reducing Ability (FRAP) of Aphanamixis polystachya (Wall) Parker. Int. J. Drug Development & Res. 2010;3(4): 271-274.
Elmastas M, Gulcin I, Isikdak O, Kufrevioglu OI, Ibaoglu K, Aboul-Enein HY. Radical scavenging activity and antioxidant capacity of Bay leaf extracts. J. Iran Chem. Soc. 2006;3:258-266.
Ahmed MF, Rao AS, Ahemad SR, Ibrahim M. Phytochemical studies and antioxidant activity of Melia azedarach Linn leaves by DPPH scavenging assay. Int. J. Pharm. Applications. 2015;3(1):271-276.
Hussain J, Rehman NU, Khan, AL, Hamayun M, Hussain SM, Shinwari ZK. Proximate and essential nutrients evaluation of selected vegetable species from Kohat Region, Pakistan. Pakistan J. Botany. 2010;42(4):2847-2855.
Pandey M, Abidi AB, Singh S, Singh RP. Nutritional Evaluation of leafy vegetable Paratha. J. Hum. Ecol. 2006;19(2):155-156.
Aregheore EM. Nutritive value and inherent anti-nutritive factors in four indigenous edible leafy vegetables in human nutrition in Nigeria: A review. J. Food Res Sci. 2012;1: 1-14.
Lockett CT, Calvert CC, Grivetti LE. Energy and micronutrient composition of dietary and medicinal wild plants consumed during drought. Study of rural Fulani, Northeastern Nigeria. Int. J. Food Sci. Nutr. 2000;51:195-208.
Pratap Chandran R, Manju S, Vysakhi MV, Shaji PK, Achutan Nair G. Nutritional and antinutritional properties of the leaves of Ardisia solanacea Roxb. (Myrsinacea), a fodder additive. Int. Food Res. J. 2015;22 (1):324-331.
Sha’a KK, Clarkson GP, Artimas SP. Phytochemical analysis, proximate composition and antinutritional factors of Corchorus oliterius plant. Int J. Biol. Chem. Sci. 2019;13(4):2147-2157.
Antia BS, Akpan, EJ, Okon PA, Umoren IU. Nutritive and anti-nutritive evaluation of sweet potatoes (Ipomoea batatas) leaves. Pakistan J. Nutri. 2006;5:166-168.
Agbaire PO. Levels of anti-nutritional factors in some common leafy edible vegetables of Southern Nigeria. Afr. J. Food Sci. Tech. 2012;394:99-101.
Arhoghro EM, Berezi EP, Prohp, TP, Angalabiri-Owei, B. Effect of combined ethanolic leaf extract of costusafer and Cleome rutidosperma on some biochemical parameters and lipid peroxidation in wistar rats. Int. J. Current Res. Chem. Pharm. Sci. 2014;1(1):43- 49.
Nwankwo RN, Buba D, Nwankwo JI. Nutrient and phytochemical determination of two under-utilized green leafy vegetables Cassia tora and Sesamum indicum with medicinal potentials in Mubi, Adamawa State of Nigeria. Greener J. Epidemiology and Public Health. 2015;3(2):14-21.
Rishi KS, Deepak P, Anirudh P, Abba S. Proximate analysis, nutritive value, total phenolic content and antioxidant activity of Litchi chinensis. Indian J of Nat. Products. 2012;5:361-369
Uyoh EA, Ita EE, Nwofia GE. Evaluation of the chemical composition of Tetrapleura tetrapter Schum (Thonn) Tuap. Accessions from Cross River State, Nigeria. Int. J. Med. Aromatic Plants. 2013;3:386-394.
Traoré K, Parkouda C, Savadogo A, Ba/ Hama F, Kamga R, Traoré Y. Effect of processing methods on the nutritional content of three traditional vegetables leaves: Amaranth, black nightshade and jute mallow. Food SciNutr. 2017;5:1139–1144.
Soetan KO. Pharmacological and other beneficial of antinutritional factors in plants: A Review. Afr. J. Biotech. 2008;7(25):4713-4721.
Gemede HF, Ratta N. Antinutritional factors in plant foods: Potential health benefits and adverse effects. Int. J. Nutri. Food Sci. 2014;3(4):284-289.
Sinha K, Khare V. Review on: Antinutritional factors in vegetable crops. The Pharma Innovation J. 2017;6(12):353-358.
Inuwa HM, Aina VO, Aimola BGI, Amao T. Comparative determination of antinutrient factors in groundnut oil, palm oil. Adv. J. Food Sci. Technol. 2011;3(4):275-279.
Agbaire PO. Levels of anti-nutritional factors in some common leafy vegetables of southern Nigeria. Afr. J. Food Sci. Technol. 2012;3(4):99-101.
Shahidi F. Benefitial health effects and drawbacks of antinutrients and phytochemical foods. An overview. ACS Symposium Series; American Chemical Society, Washington, DC; 1987.
Igile GO, Iwara IA, Mgbeje BIA, Uboh FE, Ebong PE. Phytochemical, proximate and nutrient composition of Vernonia calvaona Hook (Asteraceae): A green-leafy vegetable in Nigeria. J. Food Res. 2013;2: 1-11.
D’ Mello F. Farm Animal Metabolism and Nutrition. United Kingdom: CABI; 2000.
Wobeto C, Correa AD, de Abreu CMP, dos Santos CD, Pereira HV. Antinutrients in the cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) leaf powder at three ages of the plant. Cienc. Tecnol. Aliment. Campinas. 2007;27(1): 108-112.
Egbuna C, Ifemeje JC. Biological functions and anti-nutritional effects of phytochemicals in living system. J. Pharm. Biol. Sci. 2015;10(2):10-19.