Main Article Content
Industrial processing of the fruit juice is responsible for the changes in some quality attributes. Thermal treatment is a most applicable operation for any processing and it affects the physicochemical and antioxidant properties of the juice. This study was conducted to observe the changes in some physical properties and the bioactive compounds of star fruit (Averrhoa carambola L.) juice during thermal treatment at 70°C, 80°C and 90°C for 10, 20, 30 and 40 min by a temperature-controlled water bath. During thermal treatment of the juice pH and browning index increased significantly (P≤ 0.05) with time and increasing temperature whereas the Cloud index of the juice decreased. No significant variation (P≥ 0.05) noticed in the case of total soluble solids. Color differences gradually increased in case of color parameter (0 to 7.83 ± 0.20) and negatively increased in case of (0 to -7.33± 1.00). Irregular results observed for and maximum difference (3.01±0.08) noticed at 90°C for 40 min. The highest overall color change (∆E= 11.04±0.76) observed when the juice treated at 90°C for 40 min. In consideration of the bioactive compounds, maximum ascorbic acid estimated (24.17±0.70mg/100ml) in fresh juice and with rising temperature and time it decreased. β-carotene also decreased significantly during heat treatment. The Total Polyphenol Content (TPC) found in fresh juice as (540.08±16.64 mg GAE/100 ml) and it was not changed in a regular manner with temperature change. Flavonoid content increased significantly (P≤0.05) when the juice was heat-treated at 70°C and 80°C while no significant change observed at 90°C. Maximum DPPH scavenging activity found in fresh juice (60.19±1.39%) and decreased to (53.83±1.43%) when 90°C temperature was applied for 40 min. This study may help to find out the nutritional value of locally available star fruit and physicochemical changes of this fruit juice during thermal processing.
Ghani A. Medicinal plants of bangladesh with chemical constituents and uses. Dhaka, Asiatic Society of Bangladesh. 2003;10.
Liu Z, Ren Z, Zhang J, Chuang CC, Kandaswamy E, Zhou T, et al. Role of ROS and nutritional antioxidants in human diseases. Front Physiol. 2018;9:477.
Ruither OGC, Reneˆ OB, Andrea BP, Flavio DV, Norberto GC, Miguel MN et al. Convulsant activity and neuro- chemical alterations induced by a fraction obtained from fruit Averrhoa carambola (Oxalidaceae: Geraniales). Neurochemistry International. 2005;46: 523–531.
Chau CF, Chen CH, Lin CY. Insoluble fiber-rich fractions derived from Averrhoa carambola: Hypoglycemic effects determined by in vitro methods. Food Science and Technology. 2004;37: 331–335.
Yearbook of Agricultural Statistics-2017. Bangladesh Bureau of Statistics (BBS); 2018.
Rababah TM, Mahasneh MAA, Kilani I, Yang W, Alhamad MN, Ereifeja K, et al. Effect of jam processing and storage on total phenolics, antioxidant activity, and anthocyanins of different fruits. J Sci Food Agric. 2011;91:1096–1102.
Petruzzi L, Campaniello D, Speranza B, Corbo MR, Sinigaglia M, AB. Thermal Treatments for fruit and vegetable juices and beverages: A literature overview. Comprehensive Reviews in Food Science and Food Safety. 2017;17:668-691.
Monalisa K, Islam MZ, Asif-Ul-Alam SM, and Hoque MM. Valorization and Storage Stability Assessment of Underutilized Fruit Carambola (Averrhoa carambola) in Bangladesh. American Journal of Food Science and Technology. 2014;2(4):134-138.
Saikia S, Mahnot NK, Mahanta CL. A comparative study on the effect of conventional thermal pasteurization, microwave and ultrasound treatments on the antioxidant activity of five fruit juices. Food Science and Technology International. 2015;1-14.
Jirasatid S, Chaikham P, and Nopharatana M. Thermal degradation kinetics of total carotenoids and antioxidant activity in banana-pumpkin puree using Arrhenius, Eyring-Polanyi and Ball models. International Food Research Journal. 2018;25(5):1912-1919.
Jamil N, Jabeen R, Khan M, Riaz M, Naeem T, Khan A, et al. Quantitative assessment of juice content, citric acid and sugar content in oranges, sweet lime, lemon and grapes available in fresh fruit market of Quetta City. International Journal of Basic & Applied Sciences. 2015;15-01.
AOAC. Official method of Analysis of the Association of official Analytical chemists, 15th Ed., Washington. USA; 2004.
Maskat MY, Tan SM. Effect of heat treatment on the physicochemical properties of Mengkudu (Morinda citrifolia) extract. International Food Research Journal. 2011;18(3):1007-1011.
Santipanichwong R, Suphantharika M. Carotenoids as colorants in reduced-fat mayonnaise containing spent brewer’s yeast b-glucan as a fat replacer. Food Hydrocolloids. 2007;21:565–574.
Elizarrarás AC, Martini JP, Ramírez EM, García EA, Vera NG, ldapa CAG et al. Enzymatic inactivation and antioxidant properties of blackberry juice after thermoultrasound: Optimization using response surface methodology. Ultrasonics Sonochemistry. 2017;34:371–379.
Joseph S, Chatli MK, Biswas AK, and Sahoo J. Oxidative stability of pork emulsion containing tomato products and pink guava pulp during refrigerated aerobic storage. J Food Sci Technol. 2014;51 (11):3208-16.
Ranganna S. Handbook of analysis and quality control for fruit and vegetable products. Tata McGraw-Hill Education; 1986.
Slinkard K, Singleton V. Total phenol analysis: Automation and comparison with manual methods. American Journal of Enology Viticulture. 1977;28(1):49-55.
Islam MZ, Saha T, Monalisa K, Hoque MM. Effect of starch edible coating on drying characteristics and antioxidant properties of papaya. Journal of Food Measurement and Characterization. 2019;13(4):2951-2960.
Sharma BB, Shantaram M. Morphological and biochemical characteristics of Averrhoa fruits. International Journal of Pharmaceutical, Chemical and Biological Sciences. 2014;3(3):924-928.
Narain N, Bora PS, Holschuh HJ, and Vasconcelos MADS. Physical and chemical composition of carambola fruit (Averrhoa carambola l.) At three stages of maturity. Cienc. Technol. Aliment. 2001;3:144-148.
Manda H, Vyas K, Pandya A, Singhal G. A complete review on: Averrhoa carambola. World Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences. 2012;1(1):17-33.
Nayak PK, Chandrasekar CM, Kesavan RK. Effect of thermosonication on the quality attributes of star fruit juice. Food Process Engineering. 2018;e12857.
Klavons JA, Bennett RD, and Vannier SH. Nature of the protein constituent of commercial orange juice cloud. Journal of Agriculture and Food Chemistry. 1991;39(9).
Cautela D, Servillo L, Castaldo D, Giovane A. Enzymes in citrus juice processing. Enzymes in fruit and vegetable processing: Chemistry and Engineering Applications. 2010:197-214.
Bharate SS, Bharate SB. Non-enzymatic browning in citrus juice: Chemical markers, their detection and ways to improve product quality. J Food Sci Technol. 2014;51(10):2271-88.
Aadil RM, Zeng XA, Zhang ZH, Wang MS, Han Z, Jing H, et al. Thermosonication: A potential technique that influences the quality of grapefruit juice. International Journal of Food Science and Technology; 2015.
Tiwari BK, O’ Donnell CP, Muthukumarappan K, Ullen PJ. Ascorbic acid degradation kinetics of sonicated orange juice during storage and comparison with thermally pasteurized juice. Food Science and Technology. 2009;42:700–704.
Ishiwu CN, Iwouno JO, Obiegbuna JE, Ezike TC. Effect of thermal processing on lycopene, beta-carotene and Vitamin C content of tomato [Var.UC82B]. Journal of Food and Nutrition Sciences. 2014;2(3):87-92.
Paul R, Ghosh U. Effect of thermal treatment on ascorbic acid content of pomegranate juice. Indian Journal of Biotechnology. 2012;11:309-313.
Vikram VB, Ramesh MN, Prapulla SG. Thermal degradation kinetics of nutrients in orange juice heated by electromagnetic and conventional methods. Journal of Food Engineering. 2005;69: 608-624.
Azzouzi H, Elfazazi K, Achchoub M, Chafik L, Jbilou M, Salmaoui S. Effect of thermal pasteurization on the physicochemical stability and nutritional quality of Moroccan Valencia late orange juice. International Journal of Engineering Sciences & Research Technology. 2018; 7(8).
Lima GPP, Lopes TVC, Rossetto MRM, Vianello F. Nutritional composition, phenolic compounds, nitrate content in eatable vegetables obtained by conventional and certified organic grown culture subject to thermal treatment. International Journal of Food Science and Technology. 2009;44:1118-1124.
Choi Y, Lee SM, Chun J, Lee HB, and Lee J. Influence of heat treatment on the antioxidant activities and polyphenolic compounds of Shiitake (Lentinus edodes) mushroom. Food Chemistry. 2006;99:381–387.
Gerard KA, Roberts JS. Microwave heating of apple mash to improve juice yield and quality. Food Science and Technology. 2004;37(5):551-557.
Ali I, Jaradat NA, Zaid AN, Mohammad Q, Dwaik D, Aqel G. Processing and storage influence on scavenging activity of fruit juices. Marmara Pharmaceutical Journal. 2017;21-2:298-304.
Roy MK, Takenaka M, Isobe S, Tsushida T. Antioxidant potential, anti-proliferative activities, and phenolic content in water-soluble fractions of some commonly consumed vegetables: Effects of thermal treatment. Food Chemistry. 2007;103(1): 106-114.